Manufacturing Definitions and Jargon
Alloy: A metal formed by a mixture of two or more different metals.
Arbor Press: A hand-operated machine tool designed for applying high pressure for the purpose of pressing together or removing parts.
Assembly: A unit of fitted parts that make up a mechanism or machine.
Bar stock: Metal bars of various lengths, made in flat, hexagon, octagon, round, and square shapes from which parts are machined.
Bill of Materials (BOM): A list of raw materials, parts, components, hardware, and sub-assemblies with corresponding quantities that belong to an assembly or end product.
Burr: The sharp edge left on metal after cutting or punching-, also, a rotary cutting tool designed to be attached to a drill.
Computer-aided Design (CAD): Computer software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.
Caliper: A device used to measure inside or outside dimensions.
Chamfer: The bevel or angular surface cut on the edge or a corner of a machined part.
Chatter: The vibrations caused between the work and the cutting tool which leave distinctive tool marks on the finished surface that are objectionable.
Cold Rolled Steel (CRS): Steel that has been rolled to accurate size and smooth finish when made.
Concentricity: Accurately centered or having a common center.
Counterbore: To enlarge the top part of a hole to a specific size, as for the head of a socket-head or cap screw.
Countersink: To enlarge the top part of a hole at an angle for a flat-head screw.
Cross Section: A view showing an internal structure as it would be revealed by cutting through the piece in any plane.
Deburr: To remove sharp edges.
Deviation: A difference in a part relative to its drawing, specifications, and/or work instructions.
Diameter: The distance across a circle through the center (double the radius).
Die: A tool used to form or stamp out metal parts.
Dimension: A physical measurement of a feature.
Drawing: As illustration of a part including all manufacturing details such as dimensions, material type, material thickness, finish, hardware, assembly, etc. Also known as a print or blue print.
Export Administration Regulations: Export controlled items that are predominately for commercial use.
Finished Goods: Parts that are completed and ready to ship to the customer.
First Article: A part or report that acts as proof of conformity to the requirements on a drawing.
Fixture: A device used to hold a part in place for machining duplicate parts.
Flange: A relatively thin rim around a part.
Gauge: Thickness of steel.
Galvanized: Zinc coating on steel.
Hot Rolled Steel: Steel that has been rolled to accurate size and rough, pitted surface and slag inclusion.
International Standard Organization (ISO): International standards of manufacturing quality.
International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR): Export controlled defense items that are listed on the United States Munitions List.
Jig: A devise used to locate a part and guide cutting tools.
Joggle: offset bending process in which the two opposite bends are each less than 90° and are separated by a neutral web so that the offset is less than 5 material thicknesses.
Just in Time (J.I.T): A production strategy that relies on signals of when to make the next part.
Kanban: A scheduling system used for J.I.T production.
Lead time: The time allotted to manufacture a part from start to the day it ships.
Line bore: Two or more holes cut at the same time to create a precision alignment.
Lockout: When a machine is locked for maintenance or repair.
Lot: A manufacturing technique to control the number of parts made a time.
Mandrel: A precision-made tapered shaft to support work for machining between centers.
Material Safety Data Sheets: A document that contains information on the potential health effects of exposure to chemicals, or other potentially dangerous substances, and on safe working procedures when handling chemical products.
Outside Process (OP): Manufacturing processes that are not done in-house.
Pega: Punch area in the shop.
Pitch: The distance from any point on a thread to the corresponding point on the adjacent thread. measured parallel to the axis. Also applies to spur gears and welds.
Plus or Minus (+/-): Referring to tolerance, the allowable excess or shortage from a standard size.
Prints: As illustration of a part including all manufacturing details such as dimensions, material type, material thickness, finish, hardware, assembly, etc. Also known as a drawing or blue print.
Quality Control (QC): An entity that reviews the quality of all factors involved in production relative to the customers' specifications.
Radius: The distance from the center of a circle to its circumference (outside). Half the diameter.
Ready to Ship (RTS): Parts that are in finished goods that are ready to be shipped to the customer.
Ream: The process of reaming one or more holes to a precise diameter.
Reference Dimension: Dimensions on a print that are in parenthesis which is provided for information purposes only.
Relief: A term for clearance or clearance angle.
Return Material Authorization (RMA): A manufacturer's authorization for the customer to return a defective part for rework, replacement, or credit.
Router: A document with a set of instructions to fabricate a part by work center.
Set-up: The time allotted to set up a machine or work center to fabricate parts.
Shim: Very thin sheets of metal made in precise thickness and used between parts to obtain desired fits.
Specification (Spec): Customer driven requirements, guidelines, clauses, or instructions to fabricate a part.
Tap: A tool used to cut threads on the inside of a round hole.
Taper: A uniform increase or decrease in the size or diameter of a part.
Tolerance: The allowable deviation from a standard size.
Thousandths: Dimensions after a decimal point. Example .005 = "5 thousandths," .010 = "10 thousandths," .100 = "100 thousandths."
Work in Progress (WIP): Parts that are still being fabricated.
Work Order: A document with a set of instructions to fabricate a part by work center.
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